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88                        THE FATE OF MAN

the religion of a tribal god who has not yet
become a universal deity. Or it is like paganism
before the development of the philosophic idea
of one God. Nationalism was foreign to the
ideas of the Christian universalism of the Middle
Ages : it is a product of modern history which
has lost its sense of unity and is moving toward

French Nationalism, for example, derives from
the French Revolution, from the idea of the
supremacy of the nation. The older aristocratic
and monarchical France did not know nationalism
in the sense in which it has arisen in the nine-
teenth and twentieth centuries. It must be
admitted that Nationalism, as one of the degrees
of the mdividualization of being, has undoubted
and positive value. Culture always had national
character and roots. An international culture is
impossible. Only technics are truly international
and they have a strong internationalizing influence.
Nationalism is a cultural and historic fact. It is
an attitude toward facts, but it transforms a
natural fact into 'an idol. Nationalism has no
Christian roots and it is always in conflict with

But Christianity is certainly not cosmopolitan-
ism, which is a unification of being, a denial of
the individual degrees of being and the confirma-
tion of abstract, in the place of concrete unity.